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2019-07-02 17:59:14 编辑:哈尔滨环球雅思


passage one







Corporate Social Responsibility



文章大意: 主要讲述了一种环境友好且可承担社会责任的商业模式。




1. An action taken to Establishing social responsibility in conservation project---E

2. a description of the conventional way the ads applied to talk to its customers---F

3. A history of a humble origin and expansion---D

4. management practices arc intended to lined up the company's goal with participants prosperity---B


多选题Choose the three correct letter A-F (5-13题)

5-7)What are true about the Ben and Jerry’s company management

A. There was little difference between the highest salary and the lowest

B. They were advertising their product with powerful internal marketing.

C. They offer the employee complimentary product

D. Employee were encouraged to give services back to the community

E. the products are designed for workers to barter for other goods and services

F. offered a package of benefits for disable employees


8-10)多选题Choose the three correct letter A-F

What are the factors once contributed to the success for the BODY SHOP

A. pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetics market

B. appealed to primary market mainly of the rich women

C. focused on their lavish ads campaign

D. The company avoided producing the traditional cosmetics products

E. its moral concept that refuses to use animals-tested ingredients

F. its monetary donations to the communities and in developing countries


11-13)多选题Choose the three correct letter A-F

What arc the factors leading to the later failure for BODY SHOP company

A its philosophy that there is real beauty in everyone is faulty

B fail to fulfill promises while acted like misleading the public

C faced growing competition

D its creating demand for something that the customers do not actually need

E its newer, fresher Brands are not successful in the Market

F fail to offer cosmetics at lower prices than competitors




passage Two









Meteorite Trade









Meteorites are space rocks that fall to Earth's surface.

Meteorites are the last stage in the existence of these type of space rocks. Before they were meteorites, the rocks were meteors. Before they were meteors, they were meteoroids. Meteoroids are lumps of rock or metal that orbit the sun Meteoroids become meteors when they crash into Earth’s atmosphere and the gases surrounding them briefly light up as "shooting stars.” While most meteors burn up and disintegrate in the atmosphere, many of these space rocks reach Earth' s surface in the form of meteorites.

Dust-sized particles called micrometeorites make up 99 percent of the approximately 50 tons of space debris that falls on the Earths surface every day. Some meteorites, however, are as large as boulders.

The largest meteorite found on Earth is the Hoba meteorite discovered in Namibia in 1920. The Hoba meteorite weighs roughly 54,000 kilograms(119,000 pounds). The Hoba meteorite is so big, and so heavy, it has never been moved from where it was found!

Most meteorites look very much like rocks found on Earth, except meteorites usually have a dark, burned exterior. This exterior is formed as friction from the atmosphere melts the meteorite as it crashes toward Earth. Known as thermal ablation, this process can also give meteorites a roughened smooth, or thumbprint surface Thermal ablation creates these different textures due to different chemicals present in the meteorite.

Meteorites crash through the atmospheres of all planets and moons in our solar system. Some planets and moons don’t have enough atmosphere to break apart meteors, resulting in large meteorites. These larger meteorites create deep, round impact craters that can be found all over our Moon, Mercury, and Mars. In 2005, the first meteorite found on another planet was discovered by Opportunity, one of NASA' s Mars rover spacecraft. In 2014, Opportunity s sister spacecraft, Curiosity, discovered a meteorite that was 2 meters(7 feet)wide making it the largest yet discovered on Mars.

Types of Meteorites More than 60.000 meteorites have been found on Earth Scientists have divided these meteorites into three main types stony, iron, and stony-iron. Each of these types has many sub-groups.

Stony Meteorites

Stony meteorites are made up of minerals that contain silicates-material made of silicon and oxygen. They also contain some metal-nickel and iron. There are two major types of stony meteorites: chondrites and achondrites.

Chondrites themselves are classified into two major groups ordinary and carbonaceous. Ordinary chondrites are the most common type of stony meteorite, accounting for 86 percent of all meteorites that have fallen to Earth. They are named for the hardened droplets of lava, called chondrules, embedded in them. Chondrites formed from the dust and small particles that came together to form asteroids in the early solar system, more than 4.5 billion years ago. Because they were formed at the same time as the solar system, chondrites are integral to the study of the solar system's origin, age, and composition.

Ordinary chondrites can be classified into three main groups.The groups indicate the meteorite' s quantity of iron. The H chondrite group has a high amount of iron. The L chondrite group has a low amount of iron. The LL group has a low amount of iron and a low amount of metal in general.




Passage Three







History of Sports Development









Sport in Turkey in the Pre-Islamic Period.

Athletic culture in Turkey during the pre-Islamic period involved at least three main outlets for physical competition: archery, cirit, and wrestling- Ample evidence exists that archery was among the most common sports in the pre-Islamic Turkish culture, practiced and performed by rich and poor alike.

Survival, after all, depended heavily on skilled marksmanship Marksmanship also made for ready entertainment, and the best archers were honored and rewarded. According to Celebi (1987), Turks were like other Central Asian peoples in their use of short bows rather than the Western Europeans' favored long bow. Lewis(1971)attributes the difference to the fact that while Europe' s medieval archers traveled on foot, the Turks formed light cavalries, which, being on horseback, would have found the longbow unwieldy(p. 203). Turks' bows and arrows were made of metal bone or wood: the material reflected the archers status in society(Celebi, 1987). Technical perfection was expected in making both arrow and bow, and the weapons were subjected to thorough testing before use(Celebi, 1987). Arrows were invested with certain symbolic powers in addition to their use as weapons. For example, a young Turkish man about to marry would shoot up an arrow to learn where his marriage tent should be placed (i.e, at the point where the arrow returned to earth)( Lewis, 1978).

Women in pre-Islamic Turkish culture enjoyed extensive freedoms; they did not "sit quietly in their tents all the time (Adivar, 1930). Shoulder to shoulder with men, they hunted and fought. And they competed with men in archery contests The pre-Islamic Turkish epic Book of Dede Korkut(translated by Geoffrey Lewis) recounts how Lady Burla, a Khakan' s wife, helped rescue her son from an enemy by using arrow and sword herself to dispatch the threat( Lewis, 1978). The pages of the Dede Korkut also make clear the popularity of wrestling among pre-Islamic Turks. Athletes and others approached the sport with respect; it was honored by heroes and heroines and it figured in many aspects of life(see the offset quotation from Dede Korkut, below, describing the prenuptial wrestling match between Prince Beyrek and his intended’s housekeeper).

Finally, the sport of cirit (or jerid or jereed), a horseback javelin chase, was very popular among the nomadic Turks. Their diet consisting largely of game, they were dependent on hunting.The cirit javelin, made of wood or metal, was designed to kill large animals; during war it could also be used for close fighting. To use the javelin well required a strong arm and a practiced skill(Celebi, 1987). Using it in a game was very dangerous, involving speeding horses and attempts both to hit an opponent with the javelin and catch thrown javelins. Cirit was one of the culture s most dangerous pursuits, and it was not uncommon for players to die on the field.

Turkish sport during the Islamic period was influenced significantly by the cultural habits and moral codes of Islam practiced in the Middle East(Arabia and Persia). These allowed only men to pursue certain athletic leisure activities, and in general in this period, athletic pursuits-sports-became a privilege of the rich and politically powerful. Again, archery riding, wrestling, and cirit were the most popular events. It is during this period that athletics began to be institutionalized, a few primitive sports clubs became established. In the 19th century, European diplomats were largely responsible for introducing modern competitive sports to Turkey. The progress of sport in Turkey in the modern era has been problematic, influenced by national political, economic, and social challenges. This is, however, typical of developing countries. There has been very little scholarly research aimed at identifying problems in the development of sports in Turkey Minimal data about lifelong physical fitness for the masses(i.e.,

“sport for all"programs)has been established. This article will focus on understanding whether Middle Eastern culture has worked to impede the development of Turkish sports culture by, for example, preventing Turkish women from participating in the activities of athletics and sports.